Profit and Loss Account: Meaning, Format & Examples

Profit and Loss Accounts - Feature Image

Profit and Loss Account:

Profit and loss account is the statement which shows the all indirect expenses incurred and indirect revenue earned during the particular period. It is prepared to find out the Net Profit/loss of the business for the particular accounting period. It is calculated by deducting indirect expenses from the Gross Profit/Loss. and adding indirect income/revenue int the Gross Profit/Loss.

Net Profit/Loss =  Gross Profit/Loss + Indirect Income – Indirect Expenses

  • Indirect Income = Other incomes which are earned from Business other than the main operation of the business.
  • Indirect Expense = All business expenses other than direct expenses.

The feature of Profit and Loss Account: –

  1. Profit and Loss a/c show the net result(net profit or loss) of the business for the particular accounting period.
  2. It is the second statement of the final account.
  3. Start with the balance of trading account means gross profit or gross loss which is transferred to this account. Gross profit shows on the credit side and Gross loss shows on the debit side of this account.
  4. Only Indirect Expenses posted on the Debit side and Indirect revenue are posted on the credit side.
  5. Excess of credit side over the Debit side represents the Net Profit of the year and Excess of Debit side over Credit side represents the Net loss for the year.

The Need for Profit and Loss Account: –

    1. Net Profit/ Loss:- We need the Profit and Loss account to ascertain the Net profit for the year.
    2. Calculation of Net Profit Ratio: – The P&L account helps us to calculate NP ratio by providing us Net Profit/Loss.  (NP Ratio =  Net Profit / Net sale)
    3. The trend of Indirect Expense and Indirect Incomes:- It helps in determining the trend of indirect expenses and indirect income. With the help of tread, top management takes future decision for making targets and policies.
  1. Controlling the Indirect Expenses:- in this account, all indirect expenses related to the business enterprise shall be incorporated. It has been seen that in many business enterprises, indirect expenses cover more than 75% of the total expenses, So proper watch on these expenses is most for effective control of expenses.
  2. Comparison:- Through a comparison of the profit and Loss a/c of two different years, we will get the actual trend of our indirect expenses.
  3. The basis of the Balance sheet: –  This account is the basis of the balance sheet. The result of the profit and Loss account transferred to the Balance sheet. So, the absence of a Profit and Loss account, we cannot prepare a balance sheet.

Preparation of Profit and Loss Account:- 

For preparing Profit and Loss Account, we have to close the ledger of indirect expenses or indirect income. For this we have to post following closing journal entries in the Journal Proper: –

Closing Journal Entries: –

1. For closing all the Debit accounts of Indirect Expenses related to the P&L account: –

Profit and Loss Account        Dr.

To Account in Group head – Office and Administrative Expenses.

To Account in Group head – Selling and Distribution Expenses

To Account in Group head – Financial Expenses.

To Account in Group head – Maintenance Expenses.

To Account in Group head – Abnormal Losses

(Being all indirect expenses transferred to P&L Account)

2. For closing all the Credit accounts related to the P&L account: –

The accounts in Group head – Other Income               Dr.

The accounts in Group head – Non-trading Income     Dr.

The accounts in Group head – Abnormal Gains

To P&L Account

(Being indirect Income transferred to P&l Account)

3. For the transfer of Net profit/loss to Capital or P&l Appropriation Account: –

(i) In the case of Net Profit

Profit and Loss Account                 Dr.

To Capital Account

(Being Net profit transferred to Capital account )

OR

Profit and Loss Account                 Dr.

To P&L Appropriation Account

(Being Net profit transferred to profit/loss appropriation account )

(i) In the case of Gross loss

Capital Account     Dr.

To Profit/Loss Account

(Being Net loss transferred to Capital account )

The format of Profit and Loss Account:-

Profit and Loss Account Format - Profit and Loss Account: Meaning, Format & Examples

Note : –
if the total of Credit side excess over Debit side = Net Profit

if the total of Debit side excess over Credit side = Net  Loss

Items on the debit side of Profit and Loss Account: –

  1. Gross Loss: –

    Gross Loss transferred from the trading account. this is the first transaction in the P&L account.

  2. Indirect Expenses:- 

    Indirect Expenses are those expenses which are not directly related to the purchase or creation of goods. These expenses are related to office and administrative and selling and distribution of goods. these are classified into the following group head: –

    1. Office and Administrative Expenses: –Expenses incurred on the carrying out the routine work of the enterprise fall under this group head. Some example is shown below:-
      1. Salary of Office employees
      2. Office Electricity Expenses
      3. Office Rent(if any)
      4. Legal Charges
      5. Postage and telegram
      6. Printing and Stationary
      7. Insurance
      8. Taxes
      9. Interest on late payment
      10. Audit fee and Etc.
    2. Selling and Distribution Expenses: –Expenses incurred for promoting sales and distribution of goods fall under this group head. Some example is shown below:-
      1. Provide Free delivery to Customer- Freight outward, Carriage outward
      2. Godown rent
      3. After sale services
      4. Advertisement and Publicity
      5. Commision to the employee to promote sales
      6. Salary of the Marketing team
      7. Travelling Expenses of the Marketing Team
      8. Brokerage to an agent to promote sales
      9. Sales Promotional Expenses
    3. Financial Expenses: – Expenses incurred for arranging finance for business activities fall under this group head. Some example is shown below:-
      1. Interest on Loan
      2. Bank charges against loan accounts
      3. Legal charges for arranging the loan
      4. Brokerage paid for arranging the loan
      5. Discounts and Rebate on bills
    4. Maintenance Expenses.:- Expenses incurred on maintenance of business assets fall under this group head. Some example is shown below:-
      1. Repair and Maintenance of Fixed assets
      2. Renewals
      3. Depreciation on Fixed Assets
    5. Abnormal Losses: – Losses which are out of business course fall under this group head. Some example is shown below:-
      1. Loss on sale of Fixed assets
      2. The loss by theft/Fire/Flood
      3. Accident loss in transit
  3. Net Profit: –

    To ascertain the Net Profit or loss for the particular period we have to prepare the profit and loss account of a business. The balance of the credit side shown on the debit side of the Profit and loss account is the Net profit for the business for the particular accounting period for which the final accounts are prepared.

Items on the Credit side of Profit and Loss Account: –

  1. Gross Profit: –

    Gross Profit transferred from the trading account. This is the first transaction in the P&L account.

  2. Indirect Incomes:- 

    Indirect Incomes are those Incomes which are not directly related to the sale of goods. These are classified into the following group head: –

    1. Non-Trading Incomes: – Incomes earned other than the income from the sale of goods or services is known as other incomes. Some example is shown below:-
      1. Discount Received
      2. Rent received from the building
      3. Commission received
      4. Interest received on bank balance
      5. Dividend received on share or debenture
    2. Abnormal Gains: – Gain on the sale of fixed assets is known as abnormal gains.
  3. Net Loss: –

    To ascertain the Net Profit or loss for the particular period we have to prepare the profit and loss account of a business. The balance of the debit side shown on the credit side of the Profit and loss account is the Net loss for the business for the particular accounting period for which the final accounts are prepared.

 

1. Illustration of Profit and Loss Account: –

Prepare Profit and Loss account for the year ending March 31, 2018, in the books of Tutorstips Ltd. from the following balances as on March 31, 2018.

Gross Profit 1,000,000
Salaries  144,000
Commission received  25,000
Interest charges by bank  5,000
Freight outwards  7,000
Printing & Stationary  5,000
Interest on loan 3,500
Travelling Expenses  15,000
Advertisement Expenses  7,200
Rent Received  10,000
Legal Charges  5,000
Postage and telegram  1,200
Insurance  10,000
Loss on sale of Machinery 700
Gain on sale of Furniture  500
Depreciation on Fixed Assets  10,000

Also, show the closing entries.

Solution: –

TutorsTips Ltd.

Journal book 

Date Particulars L.F. Debit Credit
Profit and loss  A/c                                      Dr. 2,13,600
To Salaries 1,44,000
To Interest charges by bank 5,000
To Freight outwards 7,000
To Printing & Stationary 5,000
To Interest on loan 3,500
To Travelling Expenses 15,000
To Advertisement Expenses 7,200
To Legal Charges 5,000
To Postage and telegram 1,200
To Insurance 10,000
To Loss on sale of Machinery 700
To Depreciation on Fixed Assets 10,000
(Being all indirect expenses transferred to P&L Account)
Commission received                           Dr. 25,000
Rent Received                                          Dr. 10,000
Gain on sale of Furniture                    Dr. 500
To Profit and Loss A/c 35,500
(Being indirect Income transferred to P&l Account)
Profit and loss  A/c                                      Dr. 8,21,900 
To Capital Account 8,21,900 
(Being Net profit transferred to Capital account )

 

TutorsTips Ltd.

Profit and Loss Account as on March 31, 2018 

Particulars  Amounts Particulars  Amounts
To Salaries 1,44,000 By Trading A/c – (G.P.) 10,00,000
To Interest charges by bank 5,000 By Commission received 25,000
To Freight outwards 7,000 By Rent Received 10,000
To Printing & Stationary 5,000 By Gain on sale of Furniture 500
To Interest on loan 3,500
To Travelling Expenses 15,000
To Advertisement Expenses 7,200
To Legal Charges 5,000
To Postage and telegram 1,200
To Insurance 10,000
To Loss on sale of Machinery 700
To Depreciation on Fixed Assets 10,000
By Capital A/c
(Balancing Figure represent Net Profit )
8,21,900
10,35,500  10,35,500

Or 

If you want to download the above illustration please download this following image: 

Profit and Loss Accounts Solution of Example  300x236 - Profit and Loss Account: Meaning, Format & Examples
Profit and Loss Accounts – Solution of Example

2. Illustration of Profit and Loss Account: –

Prepare Profit and Loss account for the year ending March 31, 2018, in the books of Aman Enterprise Ltd. from the following balances as on March 31, 2018.

Gross loss 50,000
Salaries  94,000
Commission received  5,000
Interest charges by bank  2,000
Freight outwards  15,000
Printing & Stationary  7,000
Interest on loan 5,500
Travelling Expenses  10,000
Advertisement Expenses  10,200
Rent Received  50,000
Legal Charges  3,000
Postage and telegram  2,200
Insurance  10,000
Loss on sale of Machinery 700
Gain on sale of Furniture  2,500
Depreciation on Fixed Assets  15,000

Also, show the closing entries.

Firstly solve it by yourself then saw the solution. 

Solution: –

Aman Enterprise Ltd.

Journal book 

Date Particulars L.F. Debit Credit
Profit and loss  A/c                                      Dr. 1,64,600
To Salaries 94,000
To Interest charges by bank 2,000
To Freight outwards 15,000
To Printing & Stationary 7,000
To Interest on loan 5,500
To Travelling Expenses 10,000
To Advertisement Expenses 10,200
To Legal Charges 5,000
To Postage and telegram 3,000
To Insurance 2,200
To Loss on sale of Machinery 10,000
To Depreciation on Fixed Assets 700
(Being all indirect expenses transferred to P&L Account)
Commission received                           Dr. 35,000
Rent Received                                       Dr. 50,000
Gain on sale of Furniture                      Dr. 2,500
To Profit and Loss A/c 87,500
(Being indirect Income transferred to P&l Account)
Capital Account                                     Dr. 1,27,100
To Profit and loss a/c  1,27,100
(Being Net Loss transferred to Capital account )

 Aman Enterprise Ltd.

Profit and Loss Account as on March 31, 2018

Particulars Amounts Particulars Amounts
To Trading A/c – (G.L.) 50,000 By Commission received 35,000
To Salaries 94,000 By Rent Received 50,000
To Interest charges by bank  2,000 By Gain on sale of Furniture 2,500
To Freight outwards 15,000  By Capital A/c
(Balancing Figure represent Net Loss )
1,27,100
To Printing & Stationary 7,000
To Interest on loan 5,500
To Travelling Expenses 10,000
To Advertisement Expenses 10,200
To Legal Charges 5,000
To Postage and telegram 3,000
To Insurance 2,200
To Loss on sale of Machinery 10,000
To Depreciation on Fixed Assets 700
2,14,600 2,14,600

Or 

If you want to download the above illustration please download this following image: 

Profit and Loss Accounts Example 2 Solve 300x252 - Profit and Loss Account: Meaning, Format & Examples

 

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