Difference Between Trading and Profit & Loss account, Trading and Profit & Loss account are two different statements. Trading account is prepared to know the gross profit or loss of an entity for the particular accounting period. On the other hand, Profit or Loss account is prepared to know the actual net profit or loss of an entity for the particular accounting period. To understand the difference between Trading and Profit & Loss account, first, we have to understand the meaning of both terms.
Trading account is prepared to find out the gross profit of the business for the particular accounting period. It is calculated by comparing the net sale with the cost of goods sold(COGS).
Gross Profit/Loss = Net Sale – COGS
Net Sale = Total Sale (Cash sale + Credit Sale) – Sale Returned/Returned Inward
Cost of Goods Sold = Opening Stock + Net Purchase + Direct Expenses – Closing Stock.
- Opening Stock = Stock we have in hand at the start of the accounting year.
- Net Purchase = Total Purchase (Cash Purchase + Credit Purchase ) – Purchase Returned/Returned Outward
- Direct Expenses = All expenses which are directly related to purchasing of goods and converting them into saleable condition.
- Closing Stock = Stock we have in hand at the end of the accounting year.
Profit and loss account or Income statement is prepared to find out the Net Profit/loss of the business for the particular accounting period. It is calculated by comparing the Gross Proft/Loss with indirect income and expenses.
Net Profit/Loss = Gross Profit/Loss + Indirect Income – Indirect Expenses
- Indirect Income = Other incomes which are earned from other than the main operation of the business.
- Indirect Expense = All business expenses other than direct expenses.
Profit and Loss Account
|Meaning||Trading account is prepared to find out the gross profit of the business for the particular accounting period||Profit and loss account or Income statement is prepared to find out the Net Profit/loss of the business for the particular accounting period.|
|Timing||Trading Account is prepared before the P&L account||Profit/Loss Account is prepared after the Trading account|
|Purpose||To get know Gross profit or loss of the business.||To get know Net profit or loss of the business|
|Stage||It is the first stage of the final account.||it is the second stage of the final account.|
|Dependency||it is a first statement or final account so it is not dependent on Trial balance.||It is dependent on the Trading account.|
|Accounts||In the trading account, the ledger accounts related to the Direct Expenses and Direct incomes are posted.||In the Profit and Loss Account, the ledger accounts related to the Indirect Expenses and Indirect incomes are posted.|
|Transfer of Balance||The balance (either Gross profit or Gross Loss) of Trading account will be transferred to Profit and loss account.||The balance (either Net profit or Net Loss) of Profit and loss account will be transferred to Balance Sheet.|
|Treatment in the balance sheet||Trading account is not treated directly in the balance sheet. The Balance of Trading account is transferred to Profit and loss account only. than combine effect of both accounts are posted in the balance sheet either by Net profit or by the net loss.||Profit and loss account is treated directly in the balance sheet by adding or subtracting from the capital.|
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Trading and Profit & Loss account are summaries of the all business transaction done in the particular accounting period. These are prepared to know the actual financial performance of the business entity.
Is simple we can say that, these are the comparison statement of income and expenses of the business in a particular period.
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