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Every business (it may be Profit Or Non Profit organization) has to furnish the record of its financial business transactions in the form of accounting books to the interested parties (It may be the owner, investors, government departments, etc.). The golden rules of accounting provide the standardized regulation to the accountant to record all financial business transactions to prepare the accounting books, So that’s why it is very important to learn. 

What are the Golden Rules of Accounting?

The golden rules of Accounting are the provide basis to record all day-to-day financial business transactions in the Journal day Book. These rules will provide a minimum of two accounts from a single business transaction one is debit and another is credit which is required to record the journal entry in the journal daybook. So you can say that these rules are the foundation of the Double-entry system. To understand the Golden rules of accounts, first, we have to know the types of accounts as per the golden rules of accounts because rules are applied to the transaction on the basis of the type of accounts included in the transaction. 

These rules are also known as traditional rules of accounting or traditional approaches to accounting. Now modern rules of accounting or modern approaches to accounting are also invented which have five types of rules and we have explained it in the next article.

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Types of Accounts as per the Golden rules of Accounting

The golden rules of accounting are implemented on all ledger accounts i.e. assets, liabilities, incomes, gains, expenses, losses which are involved in the business transactions, So according to the golden rules of accounting the ledger accounts are classified into three types. These are explained with the examples as following: –

1. Real Account

As per the golden rules of accounting, the real accounts include those accounts that are related to assets of the business enterprise. So, This rule is applicable to the following business transactions which are related to the assets accounts: –

  • Purchase/Creation of assets,
  • Sale of assets,
  • Depreciation charged on the assets, and
  • Dispose of an asset.

Now to apply this rule, we have to know the meaning of assets.

What is an asset?

The asset is that valuable thing or property which the business or individual owns and gets the benefits from it in the future or used in generating income. In other words, The tangible objects and the intangible right owned by the business enterprises are known as an asset.`

The example of assets on which the Real Account is applicable:- 

  • Land and Building,
  • Furniture and fixture
  • Plant and Machine
  • Vehicles
  • Cash
  • Trademarks
  • Copyright

The list is very long, you will know all of them after completing this full tutorial.

“Click here to check out the types of assets.”

2. Personal Account

As per the golden rules of accounting, personal accounts include those accounts that are related to all types of persons i.e. natural persons, artificial persons, and representative persons. The three types of persons are explained as follows: –

1. Natural Persons: – The accounts which are related to human beings are known as natural persons. For example Amanpreet, Jazz, Pawan Kumar, Vijay, Amir Khan. Etc. 

2. Artificial persons: – The accounts which do not have any physical existence and created by-laws are known as Artificial persons. For example, Any business account may be a firm, company, bank, or institution.

3. Representative persons: – Those accounts which represent the person or group of persons are known as Representative persons. For example, Outstanding Salary, Prepaid Expenses, Accrued Income, Pre-received Income, Etc.

3. Nominal Account

As per the golden rules of accounting, Nominal accounts include those accounts that are related to all expenses/losses and incomes/gains.

Example of all accounts on which the Nominal Account is applicable:-

  • Expense Accounts: –Salary, Wages, Purchases, Electricity bill, Telephone, and mobile Rent, Transportation charges, Rent Paid, Etc.
  • Income Accounts: – Sales, Commission Received, Rent on sublet building received, Etc.
  • Loss Accounts: – Loss on sale of an asset, Loss by Theft, Loss by fire, loss by an accident, Etc.
  • Profit Accounts: – Profit on sale of an asset, Etc.

Click here to check the meaning of Expenses, Income, and Losses/Profits.

The 3 Golden Rules of Accounting

Type of Accounts 

The Golden Rules of Accounting

1. Real Account Debit: What comes in
 Credit: What goes out
2. Personal Account Debit:- The Receiver
 Credit: The Giver
3. Nominal Account Debit:- All Expenses and Losses
 Credit:- All income and gains 

1. Real Rule/Account

As I have explained above in the types of accounts that the Real rule is only applicable to the asset’s accounts. It means as per the statement of the Real rule, debit the asset’s account when an asset comes into the business and credit the asset’s account when an asset goes out from the business. 

So, you have to debit the asset’s account when a business purchase or create the assets and credit the asset’s account when a business sale or dispose of the assets. 

2. Personal Rule/Account

As per the types of accounts, the Personal Rule is applicable to all types of personal accounts. It means as per the statement of the Personal Rule, Debit the person’s account (it may be natural, artificial, or representative person) when a person received something from our business (it may be goods or services) and Credit the person’s account when a person gives something to our business. 

3. Nominal Rule/Account

As per the types of accounts, the Nominal Rule is applicable to expenses/losses and income/gains accounts. It means as per the statement of the Nominal Rule, Debit the Expense’s/losses account when a business incurred some expense or loss and Credit the Income’s/gain’s account when a business earned income or get gains.

How to apply the Golden Rules of Accounting to any transaction in an easy way?

After understanding all three types of accounts and the rules of accounting now question raised is how we can apply it to any transaction. We have explained these all rules individually with examples as follow: –

1. Real Accounts

We’ll show you, How you can apply the Golden Rules of accounting step by step with the following example: –

Example No. 1: Purchase Furniture for Rs 10,000/-

Steps Purchase Furniture for Rs. 10,000/-
1stScan and select affected Accounts (From the transaction)Furniture10,000/- Cash
2ndSelect What type of Accounts these are (separately)Asset AccountAsset Account
3rdSelect the rule which will be applied to these accountsReal AccountReal Account
4thWhat will be the effect of this transaction on these accountsPurchased Payment made
5thWhich condition of the golden rule is applied to these accountsComes in Goes out
6thNow, In the end, you got the name of the Debit and the credit account. Debit (What comes in)Credit (What goes out)
 
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Journal entry for the above Example: –

From the above table, we got the names of the debit account and the credit account. So, now we have to write these gotten name into the standard format of journal daybook as shown below: –

Date Particulars L.F.Debit Credit  
 Furniture a/c                             Dr. 10,000 
 To Cash a/c  10,000
 (Being Furniture purchased)   

The above-shown format is the standard format for Journal Entries in Accounting. if you want more explanation about it please visit the following link. 

How to make Journal Entries in Accounting – Explanation

2. Personal Accounts

Example No. 1: – Purchase of Furniture For Rs. 10,000/- from Aman on Credit.

Steps Purchase Furniture for Rs. 10,000/- From Aman on Credit
1stScan and select affected Accounts (From the transaction)FurnitureAman
2ndSelect What type of Accounts these are (separately)Asset AccountPerson Account
3rdSelect the rule which will be applied to these accountsReal AccountPersonal Account
4thWhat will be the effect of this transaction on these accountsPurchased Selling furniture
5thWhich condition of the golden rule is applied to these accountsComes in Giver
6thNow, in the end, you got the name of the Debit and the credit account. Debit (What comes in)Credit (The Giver)

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Journal entry for the above Example

From the above table, we got the names of the debit account and the credit account. So, now we have to write these gotten name into the standard format of journal daybook as shown below: –

Date Particulars L.F.Debit Credit  
 Furniture a/c                             Dr. 10,000 
 To Aman a/c  10,000
 (Being Furniture purchased on credit from Aman)   

3. Nominal Accounts

Example No. 1:- Salary paid to employees Rs. 5000/-.

Steps Salary paid to employees Rs. 5000/-.
1stScan and select affected Accounts (From the transaction)Salary5000/- Cash
2ndSelect What type of Accounts these are (separately)Expense AccountAsset Account
3rdSelect the rule which will be applied to these accountsNominal AccountReal Account
4thWhat will be the effect of this transaction on these accountsExpenses paid  Payment made
5thWhich condition of the golden rule is applied to these accountsAll Expense and Losses Goes out
6thNow, in the end, you got the name of the Debit and the credit account. Debit (All Expense and Losses )Credit (What goes out)

*Download image in PNG:- 

how to apply golden rule of accounting 3 min 1 - 3 Golden rules of Accounting | Concepts behind it Explained with examples
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Journal entry for the above Example:

From the above table, we got the names of the debit account and the credit account. So, now we have to write these gotten name into the standard format of journal daybook as shown below: –

Date Particulars L.F.Debit Credit  
 Salary a/c                             Dr. 10,000 
 To Cash a/c  10,000
 (Being salary paid to employees)   

Example of Golden rules of accounting: –

Journalizing the following transactions.

Routine journal entries
S.No. Transaction Amount
1Capital Introduced by owner100,000
2Purchase goods for cash50,000
3Sold goods for cash15,000
4Paid for Salary2,000
5Sold goods to Mr. A50,000
6Purchase goods from M/s Ram and Sons.1,00,000
7Cash received from Mr. A50,000
8Cash paid to M/s Ran and Sons.50,000

The solution of Example:

Firstly get a debit and credit account for each transaction by applying the golden rule of account shown below: –

S. No.

Select affected Accounts from the transaction 

The Nature of Account

The Rule which will be applied to these accounts

Affect of a transaction to these accounts

The condition of Rule applied

According to Rule, get to know which account will be Dr./Cr.

1.Cash a/c Assets Real AccountCash receivedWhat Comes inDebit
 Capital a/c PersonPerson Accountthe owner is giving cash to the businessThe GiverCredit
2.Purchase a/cExpensesNominal AccountMoney spent on the purchase of goods All expenses and lossesDebit
 Cash a/c Assets Real AccountCash paid for the purchase of goodsWhat Goes out Credit
3.Cash a/c Assets Real AccountCash received from the sale of goodsWhat comes in  Debit
 Sale a/cIncomeNominal Accountmoney earned on the purchase of goodsAll Income and gainCredit 
4.Salary a/cExpensesNominal Accountmoney spent on the paid salary All expenses and lossesDebit
 Cash a/c Assets Real AccountCash paid for salarywhat Goes out Credit
5.Mr. A a/c PersonPerson Accountgoods purchased by himThe receiverDebit
 Sale a/cIncomeNominal Accountmoney earned on the sale of goodsAll Income and gainCredit 
6.Purchase a/cExpensesNominal AccountMoney spent on the purchase of goods All expenses and lossesDebit
 M/s Ram and Sons. a/c PersonPerson AccountSold goods to us The GiverCredit
7.Cash a/c Assets Real AccountCash received What comes in Debit
 Mr. A a/c PersonPerson Accountpaid cash to usThe GiverCredit
8.M/s Ram and Sons a/c PersonPerson AccountCash received by himThe receiverDebit
 Cash a/c Assets Real AccountCash paid What Goes outCredit

Journal Daybook

Date Particulars L.F.Debit Credit  
 Cash a/cDr.  1,00,000 
 To Capital a/c    1,00,000
 (Being started business with cash)    
 Purchase a/cDr.  50,000 
 To Cash a/c    50,000
 (Being Purchase good for cash)    
 Cash a/cDr.  15,000 
 To Sales a/c    15,000
 (Being sold goods for cash)    
 Salary a/cDr. 3,000 
 To Cash a/c    3,000
 (Being salary paid to employees)    
 Mr. A a/cDr.  50,000 
 To Sales a/c    50,000
 (Being sold goods to Mr. A on credit)    
 Purchase a/cDr. 1,00,000 
 To M/s Ram and Sons. a/c   1,00,000
 (Being Purchased goods from M/s Ram and Sons. on credit)    
 Cash a/cDr.  50,000 
 To Mr. A a/c    50,000
 (Being Payment received from Mr. A)    
 M/s Ram and Sons a/cDr.  50,000 
 To Cash a/c   50,000
 (Being Payment made to M/s Ram and Sons)    

Points to be remembered

Steps Involved in the application of the Golden Rules of accounting are shown below: –

Step No. Description
1stScan and select affected Accounts(From the transaction)
2ndSelect What type of Accounts these are (separately)
3rdSelect the rule which will be applied to these accounts
4thWhat will be the effect of this transaction on these accounts
5thWhich condition of the golden rule is applied to these accounts
6thNow, In the end, you got the name of the Debit and the credit account.

In some cases, these rules are very difficult to understand how to apply, So that’s why Modern Rules of Accounting have come into existence. We have explained these rules in the next topic.

new 1 - 3 Golden rules of Accounting | Concepts behind it Explained with examplesThis topic is also available in Hindi. Click Here

Thanks for reading the topic of Golden rules of Accounting,

48 Comments

  1. Jasmeet

    March 7, 2018

    Thats very nice, clear and crisp explanation of accounts Amandeep. I really like it to have it understood from an Indian Tutor who explains using Indian words, accounts and terminolgies that I could relate.

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