The accounting cycle is the step by step process of recording, classifying and summarising business transaction for the particular financial year.
Nowadays, many accounting software is available in the market for preparing the books of the business. so in this software, almost all steps of the accounting cycle are automated. You have to post only journal entries in the software then after that ledger account and the trial balance will be prepared automatically by accounting software. then make required adjustment journal entries. At the end of the year the accounting software, the Financial statement of the business do prepare also automatically.
First of all, an accountant collect information about the transaction, which means to collect spotting documents related to the transaction and then analyse these documents, to know that which rule of accounting should be applicable on this transaction. Real, Personal or Nominal a/c.
Journal book is the first record of the all transaction of the business.
Date 01/04/2017, Vishal started a business with cash Rs. 10,00,000/-
01/04/2017 Cash A/c Dr 10,00,000
To Capital A/c 10,00,000
Ledger account is a book of account in which we kept all the transactions of a particular account separately. With the help of ledger, we can get whole information about the particular account at a single place. but in the journal daybook, all the transactions are recorded date wise, if we want the total balance of a particular account then it is very difficult to get it in journal daybook.
All the net balances of the ledger accounts are transferred to the trial balance to check the errors(if any) in the posting of journal and ledger.
Adjustment entries mean those entries which are related to an accrual basis, Depreciation or amortization. like outstanding/prepaid expenses, Accrued/received in advance Income, depreciation on all assets and to write off goodwill or bad debts etc.
After all adjustment, we have to make a financial statement. it included trading and Profit/loss account or Income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statement, Statement of Changes in Equity.
Closing entries are that journal entries which made at the end of an accounting period which transfer the balances of temporary accounts to permanent accounts.