What is Accounting Equation | Example

Accounting Equation Feature Image

Accounting Equation is the basis of financial accounting. This is also known as the balance sheet equation. we have explained this topic in this article thoroughly.

What is the Accounting Equation?

Accounting Equation is the basis of the double-entry system of accounting. The double-entry system means every business transaction has two aspects one is the Debit and another is the Credit. Example: – If we want to buy something like coke, pizza, or burger we have to pay cash for these items, So in this transaction, we are receiving food and paying cash which means we are doing two jobs, that is why it is called double-entry system.

In the double-entry system, every Debit amount should be equal to the Credit amount Because :
The Business can receive cash or assets from two sources, one from an owner and another is the third party. When it received from an owner this is called Capital and when receiving from third parties then it is called liabilities.

So, in Accounting Equation, Cash or Assets always Equal to Capital and Liabilities of the business.

Assets = Liabilities + Capital

The amount received from the owner is called Capital in the sole proprietorship but it is called shareholder’s funds in the limited company.

Assets = Liabilities + Shareholder’s funds

Performa of Accounting Equation shown below: –

S. No.  Transaction  Assets      =  Capital     + Liabilities 
 Name of Assets  Name of Liabilities
1.  1st Transaction Amount Amount Amount
Total Amount  Total  Total  Total 
2. 2nd Transaction Amount Amount Amount
Total Amount  Total  Total  Total 
and So On…..

Categories of Transactions: –

We have divided all business transactions into the following 6 categories under the accounting equation: –

1st: – Capital to Assets or Assets to Capital 

When an owner investing something into the business in cash or in-kind then it will be treated with the help of the capital to assets technique. The total amount of investment will be added in two-column of the accounting equation table (format is shown above) i.e. Capital Column and Assets Column.

Example Capital to Assets:

Mrs. Ramanjit started the business with cash Rs 10,00,000/- and land & building Rs 50,00,000/-

Solution: –

S. No.  Transaction  Assets      =  Capital+ Liabilities 
Cash + land & building
1. Mrs. Ramanjit started the business 10,00,000 + 50,00,000 60,00,000
10,00,000 + 50,00,000 60,00,000

Example Assets to Capital:

after one month he withdrawal 1000 from the business cash for personal use.

Solution: –

S. No.  Transaction  Assets      =  Capital+ Liabilities 
Cash + land & building
1. Mrs. Ramanjit started the business 10,00,000 + 50,00,000 60,00,000
10,00,000 + 50,00,000 60,00,000
2. withdrawal 1000 from the business cash for personal use. -10,000 -,10,000
9,90,000 + 50,00,000 59,90,000

2nd: – Liabilities to Assets or Assets to Liabilities

When taking a loan from the financial institution then its treatment is as follows:

add the total amount of loan in Liability Column and also in Assets Column.

Example: Loan Taken from HDFC Bank Ltd of Rs 20,00,000/- for the purchase of various assets.

3rd: – Assets to Asset

When we have purchased an asset for cash(cash is also an asset) then treatment is:

add the total value of an asset purchased in the assets column with another name of assets and deduct from the cash (from assets side)

Example: Furniture purchase for Rs 5,00,000/- and  Stock of Rs 15,00,000 cash paid.

4th: – Payment of Expenses

When we have to pay expenses then treatment is:

The amount of expense will be subtracted from cash and also from the capital.

Example: – Salary of Rs 50,000/- paid to employees

5th: – Receipt of Income

When we have received the amount of income then treatment is:

The amount of income will be added to cash or an asset and also add to the capital.

Example: – Commission received for Rs 40,000/-

6th: – Profit or Loss 

When a business earns profit or loss from the sale of goods or assets than it will be treated as:

The total sale price of goods or assets will be added in cash if payment received at the time of sale of goods and assets and the total cost price of goods or any other assets will be subtracted from the stock or particular asset’s account.

After that, if a business earned profit then it will be added to the balance of the capital account, or if incurred loos then it will be subtracted from the capital.

Example: – Sold goods of Rs 50,000/- for Rs 60,000/- for cash. (in this transaction sale price less costing = Profit/loss(income/loss))

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