Scientific Management refers to the application of science in all the components of management. It consists of methods, procedures, scientific tools to increase the output of the organization. This concept is developed by F.W.Taylor with his major contribution in adopting scientific methods to the problem of management. He also publishes the book “Shop Management”, Principles of Scientific Management.
It is basically concerned with the efficiency of workers and better utilisation of resources. Taylor’s principles were based on the observations in the factories where production methods are not good, planning and working methods were not in a better way.
“It is an art and science of preparing, organising and directing human effort applied to control the forces and utilise the materials of nature for the benefits of man.”
-Association of Mechanical Engineers, USA
“It is the operational study of work, the analysis of work into its simplest element and the systematic improvement of the worker’s performance of each element.”
-Peter F. Drucker
Scientific Principles of Management:
There are four principles given by F.W.Taylor which are as follows:
1 Science, not the rule of thumb:
Rule of thumb (general guidelines) is a principle with broad application but it is not reliable for every situation which is based on practices and experiences whereas scientific decisions are based on cause and effect relationship.
A manager should not make every decision based on his experience he should take decisions scientifically if actually wants to maximise efficiency in the work. Taylor introduced the standard time for a job and work-study to perform the activities in the best and cheapest way.
2. Harmony, not discord:
Discord means lack of harmony. Taylor insists on the mental revolution which helps in change the attitude of the workmen. He emphasis on harmony and develop positive thinking among the workers. Taylor feels that every organisation can be developed and grow if the employees are working in harmony and far away from discrepancies.
3. Cooperation, not individualism:
According to this principle, work must be done with the cooperation and mutual understanding.
let’s take one example: At the time of assigning the job to workers if management asks them about their area of interest then definitely the workers will perform the work more efficiently.
To have cooperation a manager must welcome good suggestions of employees and they must be rewarded for their suggestions. This principle mainly focuses on the Paternalistic style of management and equal division of work and responsibility.
Sharing of gains (bonus, surplus profits) between employees and management leads to harmony and prosperity of the organisation.
4. Development of workers to their greatest efficiency and prosperity:
In this principle, Taylor mainly focuses on the appropriate selection of employees and giving job according to their skills and capabilities.
Employees must be sent for training to update their knowledge which will help in the growth of employees as well as the organisation.
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